A regionalized system of perinatal care with integrated delivery of services should address the care received by women before and during pregnancy, the management of labor and delivery, postpartum care, and neonatal care. Developments in perinatal medicine have allowed the existence of premature infants. These infants arrive in life with their maternal nutrient supply abruptly disconnected and have numerous nutritional risk factors. Neonatal care evaluates and monitors the newborn system-by-system for normal versus abnormal functioning, providing maintenance of normal and potential treatment of abnormal findings. Quality, skilled care during pregnancy and childbirth is the key to the health of the baby and the mother. Several studies have also documented low birth weight as a major contributory factor in perinatal and neonatal mortality.
Respiratory disease is a common cause of neonatal illness. Prompt investigation to ascertain the underlying diagnosis and appropriate subsequent management is important to improve outcomes. The ability of the newborn infant to adapt to the extra-uterine environment is critical to survival. The diseases are mainly caused by an absence of a slippery material in the lungs called surfactant. This material helps the lungs fill with air and keeps the air sacs from deflating. Surfactant is present when the lungs are fully developed. Arguably none is more critical to survival than the adaption of the lungs. Neonatal respiratory conditions can rise for several reasons: delayed adaptation or maladaptation to extra-uterine life, prevailing illnesses such as surgical or congenital anomalies or from acquired conditions such as pulmonary infections occurring either pre- or post-delivery.
A number of heart conditions can affect children. Some are physical disability they are born with. Others involve the electrical system that controls the heartbeat. Children are more likely to be detected with a heart difference that they were born with, but heart attacks in children are very rare. Neonatal Cardiology is the fetal diagnosis and cure given for pregnant women at risk of or known to be carrying babies with heart problems. Neonatal heart conditions mainly includes heart defects associated with other types of disease, such as diaphragmatic hernia, heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy) or infection (myocarditis), Heart problems due to lung masses, etc.
For the growth and development of babies and children, adequate nutrition is fundamental. A balanced and nutritious diet improves the immune system of your infant, helps him or her maintain a healthy weight, and helps to grow his or her brain and bone. Proper nutrition is fundamental to the development and growth of infants. When developing infants are fed the appropriate types and amounts of foods, their health is promoted. A good and nutritious diet strengthens the child's immune system, helps him or her maintain a healthy weight, and helps the brain and bone to develop.
Adolescents' tumor are not always treated like adult tumors. Pediatric oncology is a medical field concentrated on the care of children with cancer. There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that a child with cancer receives will depend on the type of cancer and how advanced it is. Common treatments include: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplant. Neonatal oncology is a pediatric oncology sub-specialty that deals with cancer prevention, diagnosis, and care in infants. Newborn cancer is unusual and includes a heterogeneous population with significant histological variation of neoplasms. In fetuses and neonates, almost all forms of pediatric cancer can occur. 
Pediatric dentistry is a branch of dentistry that deals with children's dental health monitoring and treatment. Dental procedures are commonly viewed, especially among children, as fear-provoking and painful experiences that most would like to avoid. Many children nowadays are exposed to several tooth diseases and tooth decay is quite common in them. Milk teeth go away over time, but permanent teeth that require outstanding care are the essential ones. A child has to go through painful procedures and therapies if oral hygiene is not taken care of.  Pediatric dentists are special oral care providers for newborns and children through adolescence, including those with exceptional health needs.
Kidney diseases are often allied with poor lifestyles and old age, but children also suffer from a host of issues related to their kidneys. The kidney diseases in children could be congenital (from birth) such as hydronephrosis or an obstruction of the urinary tract. Children can also contract urinary tract infections, kidney stones, renal failure and other diseases and medical issues. Pediatric nephrology comprises diagnosing, treatment, and management many disorders affecting the kidney and urinary tract, including kidney failure, inherited kidney diseases, high blood pressure, kidney stones, abnormalities in the urine such as blood and protein and urinary tract infections. Pediatric nephrology evaluates and treats hypertension, hematuria, proteinuria, renal tubular acidosis, nephrolithiasis, glomerulonephritis and kidney failure.
The vast majority of neonates enter the world healthy. But sometimes, infants develop conditions that require medical tests and treatment. New borns are particularly susceptible to certain diseases, much more so than older children and adults. Their new immune systems aren't adequately developed to fight the bacteria, viruses, and parasites that cause these infections. These extremely skillful experts also focus on infection prevention for high-risk patients and managing infections if they occur. In recent times the Covid-19 that dominated our society for a while caused by the coronavirus affecting children of all ages who can get sick. But usually, most children who are infected may not get as ill as adults and some do not have any symptoms at all. Pediatric infectious diseases experts treat a wide sort of contagious and immunologic diseases such as those caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites.
As Children are not mini adults. They have anatomically, physiologically and psychosocially differences. Early and critically ill newborns may need surgery soon after delivery to discourse defects or abnormalities. Operating on these critical newborns requires a highly specialized level of care. Neonatal surgical problems are birth defects and anomalies. Neonatal surgery is performed on newborns with defects that cannot be treated while in the womb. Surgery may be done straightaway after labor or in the days or weeks that follow. Pediatric surgery encompasses birth defects, abnormalities in children from accidents and trauma cases and more. Surgery in the pediatric population is always done with several factors taken into severe consideration. Surgeries in the pediatric population may be indiscriminately divided into major, minor, elective and urgent surgeries. Surgeries of the head and neck, as well as the chest and some abdominal operations, fall under the indication of major surgery.
In concerned for critically ill children, treatment and management often begins in the pediatric emergency department. A smooth transition in care is needed to ensure appropriate care to the sickest of children. It requires the supervision of critically ill children in the pediatric emergency department apart from the initial stabilization for conditions such as pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute respiratory failure, status epilepticus, traumatic brain injury, congenital heart disease, and metabolic emergencies. Often, these conditions are serious and can be life-threatening. It includes treating acute medical problems such as high or persistent fever, severe infections, difficulty breathing, severe pain, vomiting, convulsions, and serious allergic reactions. Serious accidents, such as fractures, head injuries, burns, and disabilities arising from collisions, falls, or other incidents involving motor vehicles. Overdoses and poisonings. Significant chronic disease conditions such as asthma, diabetes, sickle cell disease, and congenital or other debilitating diseases (i.e., existing at birth).
Pediatric and Neonatal Neurology includes the treatment of neurological diseases that occur in newborn, infants, children and adolescents. It involves the treatment of children with a wide variety of disorders, from seizures and acquired brain injury to prenatally diagnosed brain malformations, Intellectual disability, Congenital malformations, which are problems in how the brain forms or develops, Stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI), Genetic conditions that affects the nervous system, Autoimmune problems that affect the brain and spinal cord (such as multiple sclerosis), Infections or inflammation of the brain (such as meningitis or encephalitis), Brain tumors. Child neurologists gives treatment for children from birth into young adulthood.
Pediatric endocrinology is a medical subspecialty dealing with disorders of the endocrine glands, such as variations of physical growth and sexual development in childhood, diabetes including type 1 and type 2, adrenal gland disorders, adrenoleukodystrophy, bone and mineral disorders, childhood obesity, growth disorders, lipid disorders, multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1 (MEN 1) and type 2 (MEN 2), pituitary disorders, puberty disorders, thyroid disorders, including thyroid cancer. Endocrine disease in the neonate is uncommon, but may be life threatening or have profound long-term consequences if not quickly recognized and treated. These disorders can have severe implications on the development of the CNS if not promptly treated and prevented.
Digestive, liver, and nutritional problems in children often are quite different from those seen in adults. Pediatric gastroenterologists are especially trained to carry out diagnostic tests of a child’s digestive system. They have wide-ranging expertise in managing nutritional complications in children, including placement and management of feeding tubes and intravenous nutrition and diagnosing and treating infants, children, and teens with liver disease which includes Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract, Complicated or severe gastro esophageal reflux disease (reflux or GERD), Liver disease, Short bowel syndrome, Acute or chronic abdominal pain, Chronic constipation, Vomiting, Nutritional problems (including malnutrition, obesity, and failure to thrive), Feeding disorders, Food allergies or intolerances, Inflammatory bowel disease, Severe or chronic diarrhea, Pancreatic insufficiency (including cystic fibrosis) and pancreatitis.
Adolescent medicine is the care of people in and around their teen years, up to 20 years of age. Adolescent health specializes in caring for young people 10 to 21 years of age seeking help with eating disorders, biofeedback for chronic headaches and abdominal pain, pediatric and adolescent gynecology, gender diverse care, and reproductive and sexual health. Medicine is often classified most simply as pediatric and adult, with the pediatric category covering from early stages through both childhood and adolescence.
Vision is considered to be the most valuable of the basic senses among everyone.  Vision loss may have tremendous consequences for the quality of life of a child. Newborn babies can be affected by a large number of congenital and acquired eye disorders. Timely referral, diagnosis, and management are critical to allow optimal visual development. The critical period of visual development is in the first 6 months after birth in neonates. Pediatric ophthalmologists can diagnose, treat, and manage all children’s eye problem. They perform surgery, microsurgery, and laser surgery (for problems like weak eye muscles, crossed eyes, wandering eyes, blocked tear ducts, retinal problems, and infections), Diagnose visual processing disorders, Diagnose problems of the eye caused by diseases of the body such as diabetes or juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and other medical and neurological diseases, Care for eye injuries.
The Division of Pediatric Otolaryngology provides a complete diagnostic and treatment program for all diseases involving the ear, nose or throat. The pediatric otolaryngologist has unique skills in the diagnosis, treatment, and management of childhood disorders of voice, speech, language, and hearing.

Pharmacology consists of two fields of interest, pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pediatric Pharmacology ensures safe and effective drug use and optimal medication therapy outcomes in children up to 18 years of age.
For children with cancer and other life-limiting illnesses, palliative care is a central component of care in resource-limited environments. Palliative care focuses on providing relief from the symptoms and stress of the illness. Severe medical issues, including genetic abnormalities, cancer, prematurity, developmental disorders, heart and lung conditions and others, are treated through pediatric palliative care. Symptoms of these conditions, such as pain, shortness of breath, exhaustion, constipation, nausea, lack of appetite and sleeping problems, anxiety and depression, are relieved. Palliative care goals for curing and healing and become instrumental for improving the quality of life.
Every newborn infant deserves a healthy start in life. The neonatal period, which lasts for the first 28 days, is crucial. Fundamental health and eating behaviors are established during this time. 
Pediatric and Neonatal pulmonologists specialize in treating children with breathing problems. Common conditions include asthma, pneumonia, wheezing, bronchitis. It provides diagnosis and comprehensive care for the full range of lung and respiratory disorders including chronic lung disease, cystic fibrosis, chronic cough, respiratory insufficiency, and sleep disorders. Some of the treatment and diagnosis includes CT Scan, Ultrasound, Pulmonary function test, Bronchoscopy, Thoracentesis, Chest fluoroscopy, and Pleural biopsy.
Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics comprises the cure of infants and toddlers from birth through 3 years old who are at risk for developmental delays or behavioral problems due to prematurity or other medical problems that caused in hospitalization in a neonatal intensive care unit. The professionals can help diagnose complex issues, including ADHD and others like delayed development in speech, language or motor skills or other social skills issues, mental health issues like anxiety, Autism, performance issues in school, learning differences like dyslexia, developmental and behavior evaluation of children with genetic disorders, school problems. Care coordinated by the Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics clinic usually includes treatment planning, behavioral medication management and endorsements for further assessment or additional therapeutic strategies.
Pediatric and Neonatal dermatology involved in the treatment of skin, nails, hair and its illnesses. A dermatologist treats the skin, scalp, hair, and nails with diseases, in the most thorough sense, and certain corrective problems. They provide treatment to several skin conditions, including hemangiomas and other pigmented birthmarks, vascular birthmarks and congenital skin disorders, atopic dermatitis or eczema, contact dermatitis, vitiligo, hives, psoriasis, and warts. Ongoing topics in the field of pediatric dermatology, including new forms of childhood contact dermatitis, fibrocystic pancreatic disease and aquagenic palm wrinkling. Pediatric dermatologists provides medications and treatment for a wide variety of pediatric skin conditions using the latest available treatment methods. They provide treatment for children from birth through adolescence.
Pediatric orthopedic surgeons are doctors who specialize in treating children's musculoskeletal (bone, joint, back, and muscle) issues. Their specialty training is particularly valuable when treating bones that are still growing. Pediatric orthopedic surgeons diagnose, treat, and handle musculoskeletal issues in infants, such as: Deformities of the limbs and spine (such as club foot and scoliosis), Gait abnormalities (limping), Bone and joint infections, Broken bones.
Clinical Case Studies in Pediatrics provides a compilation of often recognized sorts of pediatric situations that need hospital admission by simulating genuine morning report diagnosis sessions experienced by hospital clinicians. Each case study begins with a description of the reason for admission to the hospital, followed by a differential , discussion of the differential diagnosis, and finally an in-depth explanation of the actual diagnosis.